ASTM D1556 : Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of ...
Astm D1556 Pdf Free Download: What You Need to Know
If you are involved in geotechnical engineering, you may have heard of Astm D1556, a standard test method for density and unit weight of soil in place by sand-cone method. This test method is widely used to determine the in-place density and unit weight of soils for various purposes, such as quality control, design, and evaluation of earthworks. But what exactly is Astm D1556, how do you perform it, and where can you find its pdf free download? In this article, we will answer these questions and more.
Astm D1556 Pdf Free Download
What is Astm D1556?
Definition and Scope
Astm D1556 is a standard test method issued by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), an international organization that develops and publishes technical standards for various materials, products, systems, and services. Astm D1556 defines the procedure for determining the in-place density and unit weight of soils using a sand cone apparatus.
The in-place density and unit weight of soils are important parameters that reflect the compaction and consolidation characteristics of soils. They are also used to calculate other engineering properties, such as void ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, and shear strength.
Astm D1556 is applicable for soils without appreciable amounts of rock or coarse materials in excess of 1 1/2 in. (38 mm) in diameter. It may also be used for intact or in situ soils, provided the natural void or pore openings in the soil are small enough to prevent the sand used in the test from entering the voids. The soil or other material being tested should have sufficient cohesion or particle attraction to maintain stable sides on a small hole or excavation, and be firm enough to withstand the minor pressures exerted in digging the hole and placing the apparatus over it, without deforming or sloughing.
Applications and Benefits
Astm D1556 is commonly used for the following purposes:
Quality control of soil compaction during construction.
Design of foundations, pavements, embankments, slopes, retaining walls, and other earth structures.
Evaluation of soil bearing capacity, settlement, stability, permeability, and erosion resistance.
Estimation of soil moisture content and dry density.
The benefits of using Astm D1556 include:
It is simple, economical, and reliable.
It does not require sophisticated equipment or calibration.
It can be performed on site with minimal disturbance to the soil.
It can provide accurate results if performed properly.
Limitations and Precautions
However, Astm D1556 also has some limitations and precautions that should be considered before using it:
It is not suitable for organic, saturated, or highly plastic soils that would deform or compress during the excavation of the test hole.
It may not be suitable for soils consisting of unbound granular materials that will not maintain stable sides in the test hole, soils containing appreciable amounts of coarse material larger than 1 1/2 in. (38 mm), and granular soils having high void ratios.
It may introduce errors due to variations in sand density, moisture content, temperature, and calibration.
It may cause environmental concerns due to the disposal of the excavated soil and the use of sand.
Therefore, it is important to follow the standard procedure carefully, check the equipment and materials regularly, and verify the results with other methods if possible.
How to Perform Astm D1556 Test?
Equipment and Materials
The equipment and materials required for Astm D1556 test are:
A sand cone apparatus, consisting of a metal container with a conical valve attached to a metal base plate with a center hole. The container should have a capacity of at least 1/2 ft (14 L) and a diameter of at least 6 in. (150 mm). The base plate should have a diameter of at least 12 in. (300 mm) and a thickness of at least 1/4 in. (6 mm). The valve should be adjustable and capable of retaining the sand in the container until released.
A metal tray or sheet, large enough to cover the test hole and prevent the loss of excavated soil.
A balance or scale, capable of weighing up to 50 lb (25 kg) with an accuracy of 0.01 lb (0.005 kg).
A drying oven, capable of maintaining a temperature of 230 9F (110 5C).
A moisture can or container, with a tight-fitting lid and a capacity of at least 20 oz (600 mL).
A spoon or scoop, for transferring the soil sample to the moisture can.
A straightedge or ruler, for leveling the sand cone apparatus and the test hole.
A tamping rod or spoon, for compacting the soil around the edge of the test hole.
A jug or container, for holding water to moisten the sand if needed.
Clean, dry, uniform sand, free of organic matter and other deleterious substances, passing a No. 10 (2 mm) sieve and retained on a No. 60 (0.25 mm) sieve. The sand should have a known density and moisture content, determined by using a calibration container of known volume and weight.
Procedure and Calculations
The procedure and calculations for Astm D1556 test are as follows:
Select a representative test location on the soil surface and clear any loose or foreign material.
Place the metal tray or sheet over the test location and mark the outline of the base plate on it.
Remove the tray or sheet and excavate a test hole within the marked outline, using a spoon or scoop. The depth of the hole should be approximately equal to its diameter, but not less than 4 in. (100 mm). The volume of the hole should be between 0.03 and 0.1 ft (850 and 2830 cm). The sides and bottom of the hole should be smooth and compacted.
Place the excavated soil on the tray or sheet and weigh it to the nearest 0.01 lb (0.005 kg). Record this as Ws, the weight of soil.
Take a representative sample of the excavated soil, about 1 lb (0.5 kg), and place it in the moisture can. Weigh it to the nearest 0.01 lb (0.005 kg) and record this as Ww, the wet weight of soil sample.
Dry the soil sample in the oven for at least 16 hours or until constant weight is reached. Weigh it again to the nearest 0.01 lb (0.005 kg) and record this as Wd, the dry weight of soil sample.
Calculate the moisture content M (%) of the soil sample as follows: M = [(Ww - Wd) / Wd] x 100
Fill the sand cone apparatus with sand and close the valve. Weigh it to the nearest 0.01 lb (0.005 kg) and record this as Wc, the weight of apparatus filled with sand.
```html a cone-shaped cavity in the sand. Close the valve when no more sand flows out. Weigh the apparatus again to the nearest 0.01 lb (0.005 kg) and record this as W1, the weight of apparatus with residual sand.
Calculate the weight of sand in the cone Wsc (lb) as follows: Wsc = Wc - W1
Place the apparatus over the test hole, making sure that the base plate covers the hole completely and fits snugly against the soil surface. Open the valve and allow the sand to flow into the hole. Close the valve when no more sand flows out. Remove the apparatus from the hole and weigh it to the nearest 0.01 lb (0.005 kg). Record this as W2, the weight of apparatus with remaining sand.
Calculate the weight of sand in the hole Wsh (lb) as follows: Wsh = W1 - W2
Calculate the volume of sand in the cone Vc (ft) as follows: Vc = Wsc / Ds, where Ds is the density of sand (lb/ft) determined by calibration.
Calculate the volume of sand in the hole Vh (ft) as follows: Vh = Wsh / Ds
Calculate the volume of test hole V (ft) as follows: V = Vc + Vh
Calculate the wet density of soil γwet (lb/ft) as follows: γwet = Ws/V
Calculate the dry density of soil γdry(lb/ft) as follows: γdry= γwet/[1 + (M/100)]
Calculate the unit weight of soil γ (lbf/ft) as follows: γ = γdryx g, where g is the acceleration due to gravity (32.2 ft/s)
If more than one test is performed at a location, calculate the average values of moisture content, wet density, dry density, and unit weight.
If desired, calculate other soil properties, such as void ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, and shear strength, using appropriate formulas and correlations.
If required, compare the test results with specified criteria or standards to evaluate the soil condition and performance.
Clean and store the equipment and materials properly after use.
Dispose of the excavated soil and used sand in an environmentally safe manner.
Note any unusual or abnormal conditions or observations during the test.
Prepare a report that includes all relevant information and data, such as test location, date, time, weather, soil description, equipment and materials used, calibration data, test procedure, calculations, results, interpretation, comparison, conclusions, recommendations, and references.
The report should also include a sketch or diagram of the test site showing the test hole location and dimensions, and any photographs or videos taken during the test.
The report should follow a standard format and style, and use clear and concise language.
The report should be checked for accuracy, completeness, consistency, and clarity before submission or publication.
Where to Find Astm D1556 Pdf Free Download?
The official source for Astm D1556 pdf free download is ASTM International website (https://www.astm.org). You can access Astm D1556 pdf free download by following these steps:
Go to https://www.astm.org and click on "Standards" in the top menu.
Type "D1556" in the search box and click on "Search".
Select the latest version of Astm D1556 from the search results.
Click on "Read Online" to view the pdf file online, or click on "Download" to download the pdf file to your device.
You may need to create a free account or log in with your existing account to access the pdf file.
You may also need to agree to the terms and conditions of use before viewing or downloading the pdf file.
If you cannot access Astm D1556 pdf free download from the official source, you may try some alternative sources, such as:
https://ensayosdelaboratoriosuelos.files.wordpress.com/2015/11/astm-d1556.pdf - This is a pdf file of Astm D1556-07, the previous version of Astm D1556, uploaded by a user on a WordPress site. You can view or download the pdf file directly from this link.
https://idoc.pub/download/astm-d1556-34wpg9jx1wl7 - This is a pdf file of Astm D1556-07, the previous version of Astm D1556, uploaded by a user on a document sharing site. You can view or download the pdf file directly from this link.
https://civilnode.com/download-standard/10646613627779/astm-d1556d1556m-standard-test-method-for-density-and-unit-weight-of-soil-in-place-by-sand - This is a web page that provides a link to download Astm D1556/D1556M-15e1, the latest version of Astm D1556, from ASTM International website. You can click on the link to access Astm D1556 pdf free download from the official source.
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Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) about Astm D1556 pdf free download:
Q: What is the difference between Astm D1556 and Astm D1556M?
A: Astm D1556 is the standard test method for density and unit weight of soil in place by sand-cone method using inch-pound units, while Astm D1556M is the same test method using SI units. The two versions are technically equivalent, but differ in units and editorial style.
Q: What are the advantages and disadvantages of sand-cone method compared to other methods for density and unit weight of soil?
A: The advantages of sand-cone method include its simplicity, economy, reliability, and applicability for most soils. The disadvantages of sand-cone method include its unsuitability for organic, saturated, or highly plastic soils, its potential errors due to variations in sand density, moisture content, temperature, and calibration, and its environmental concerns due to the disposal of the excavated soil and the use of sand.
Q: How can I calibrate the sand cone apparatus and determine the density of sand?
A: You can calibrate the sand cone apparatus and determine the density of sand by using a calibration container of known volume and weight. The calibration container can be a metal cylinder or a metal mold used for other soil tests. You can fill the calibration container with sand and weigh it to determine the weight of sand. You can then divide the weight of sand by the volume of calibration container to obtain the density of sand. You can repeat this procedure several times and take the average value as the final density of sand.
Q: How can I check the accuracy and validity of Astm D1556 test results?
A: You can check the accuracy and validity of Astm D1556 test results by performing some quality control measures, such as:
Performing at least three tests at each test location and calculating the average values.
Comparing the test results with specified criteria or standards or with other test methods.
Checking the equipment and materials for any defects or errors.
Verifying the calculations and data for any mistakes or inconsistencies.
Reviewing the report for any omissions or inaccuracies.
Q: How can I cite Astm D1556 pdf free download in my report or paper?
A: You can cite Astm D1556 pdf free download in your report or paper by using a standard citation style, such as APA, MLA, or Chicago. For example, using APA style, you can cite Astm D1556 pdf free download as follows:
ASTM International. (2015). Standard test method for density and unit weight of soil in place by sand-cone method (ASTM D1556/D1556M-15e1). https://doi.org/10.1520/D1556_D1556M-15E01
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